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Korean Journal of Clinical Oncology > Article
Korean J Clin Oncol. 2012;8(1): 9-22.         doi: https://doi.org/10.14216/kjco.12002
Debate and update issues for surgical treatment of mid and lower rectal cancer
Nam Kyu Kim
Professor Department of Surgery Yonsei University College of Medicine Seoul, Korea
중 하부 직장암의 수술적 치료에 대한 종양학적 고찰
연세대학교 의과대학 외과학교실
Corresponding Author: Nam Kyu Kim ,Tel: +82-2-2228-2105, Fax: +82-2-313-8289, Email: namkyuk@yuhs.ac
Received: June 26, 2012;  Accepted: June 28, 2012.
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Updates and Debate issues form the surgical treatment of middle or low rectal cancer The main goals for the surgical treatment of rectal cancer were the complete removal of the rectal cancer with surrounding lymphatic draining area, which subsequently result in decreasing the rate of local recurrence as well as prolong patient survival. If the tumor located at the near the anal canal, concerning issues will be whether anal sphincter can be preserved or not and furthermore autonomic pelvic nervous system could be saved or not. Multidisciplinary approach for rectal cancer has been more popular and treatment strategy rapidly changing based on more accurate preoperative local staging finding and minimal invasive surgical techniques become popular too. One of the advance technology is the development of transanal local excision techniques such Transanal endoscopic microsurgery technique such as TEM(transendoscopic microsurgery), TEO(transendoscopic operation) and TAMIS (transanal minimal invasive surgery). Those techniques make us be able to excise early rectal cancer with full thickness as well as unfragmented state, also can be approached to the upper rectum, which can not approach with previous conventional transanal approach method. Local excision for early T1 rectal cancer has been regards as good treatment option because patient can avoid complication related to the radial proctotectomy such as anastomoitc leakage, postoperative sexual and voiding dysfunction and dysregulated bowel movements. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy has been recommended for patient with cT3N0 or cT3 N+ rectal cancer because some clinical trials showed us preoperative chemoradiation therapy showed better local control rate and less toxicities than postoperative chemoradiation treatment. Recent clinical trial both retrospective and prospective showed us a promising results about local excision after neoadjuvant chemoradiation selectively in patients with low rectal cancer. Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy for cT2N0 followed by local excision reported excellent oncologic outcomes quite comparable to the radical surgery group. In addition to that, there has been some reports which showed clinical complete remission after neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy could be wait and see. A couple of observational studies showed wait and see can be possible option of treatment in selective patients. Radial surgery for middle and low rectal cancer still remains a cornerstone of surgical treatment Ultralow anterior resection with or without intersphincteric resection became a more standard surgical method for low rectal cancer. Oncologic and functional outcomes has been reported as safe even functional outcomes study was rare. Furthermore, Abdominoperineal resection has been famous for high intraoperative tumor perforation and positive circumferential resection margin, those factors have been contributed to the high rate of local recurrence and poor survival rate compared with sphincter saving procedures for rectal cancer. Recently, there have been great efforts for reducing theses problem and total levator excision or extended abdominoperineal resection concepts emerged. Surgeons who advocated this concept recommended perineal dissection under the Jack-knife position. Surgical management for low rectal cancer should be directed for radically and preserving function based on multimodality approach. We need more high level of evidence based on prospective clinical trials for tailored treatment of rectal cancer patients
Keywords: middle and low rectal cancer | surgical treatment | oncologic outcome
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